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38 Mehta et al, The Effect of Alakalinization of Lignocaine Hydrochloride on Brachial Plexus Block,
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supra; and Fitton et al, The Use of pH Adjusted Lignocaine in Controlling Operative Pain in the Day
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39 Talu, et al, Effect of warming and buffering lidocaine on pain during facial anesthesia, supra.
   
40 Richtsmeier, et al, Buffered Lidocaine for Skin Infiltration Prior to Hemodialysis, J Pain and Sympt Man,
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41 Burns et al, Decreasing the Pain of Local Anesthesia: A Prospective, Double-Blind Comparison of
Buffered Premixed 1% Lidocaine with Epinephrine Versus 1% Lidocaine Freshly Mixed with Epinephrine
,
supra.
   
42 Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local
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44 Condouris GA, Shakalis A, Potentialtion of the Nerve-Depressant Effect of Local Anesthetics by Carbon
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45 See also, Otsuguro K, Yasutake S, Yoshihiko Y, Ban M, Ohta T, Ito S, Why Does Carbon Dioxide Produce
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46 Catchlove, The Influence of C02 and pH on Local Anesthetic Action.
   
47 Id.
   
48 Talu, et al, Effect of Warming and Buffering Lidocaine on Pain During Facial Anesthesia, supra.
   
49 Richtsmeier, et al, Buffered Lidocaine for Skin Infiltration Prior to Hemodialysis, supra.
   
50 Burns et al, Decreasing the Pain of Local Anesthesia: A Prospective, Double-Blind Comparison of
Buffered Premixed 1% Lidocaine with Epinephrine Versus 1% Lidocaine Freshly Mixed with Epinephrine
,
supra
   
51 Ikuta PT, Raza SM, Durrani Z, Vasireddy AR, Winnie AP, Masters R, pH Adjustment Schedule for the
Amide Local Anesthetics
, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 14, No. 5, P. 232 (1989).
   
52 Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration
Through pH Buffering, Emergency Medici
ne
, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 27 (1988). For other articles recommending
immediate of local anesthetic use after buffering, see: Erramouspe J, Buffering Local Anesthetic Solutions
with Sodium Bicarbonate
, Literature Review and Commentary, Hospital Pharmacy, Vol. 31, No. 10, P. 1275
(1996); Armel HE, Horowitz M, Alkalinization of Local Anesthesia with Sodium Bicarbonate - Preferred
Method of Local Anesthesia
, Urology, Vol. 43, No.1, P. 101 (1994).